Geothermal energy derived from the earth’s heat can provide clean, renewable power, while emitting little to no greenhouse gases, and having a small environmental footprint for development. In addition, geothermal energy is available at all times. Modern closed-loop geothermal power plants not only emit no greenhouse gasses, but they also consume less water on average over the lifetime energy output than the most conventional generation technologies.
The Department of Energy’ GeoVision study describes geothermal energy’s benefits as:
- Secure, “always-on” renewable electricity generation with flexible and load-following capabilities to support grid stability and resiliency
- Nationwide electricity generation, and residential, commercial, and district heating and cooling
- Commercial and developing technologies for increased electricity generation and direct-use applications
- Economic benefits for the geothermal industry, and environmental benefits for the nation
- Revenue potential for federal, state, and local stakeholders, as well as royalty potential for leaseholders.
The Geothermal Technologies Office Multi-Year Plan (FY 2022-2026) cites the following important benefits to the nation that geothermal energy offers:
- grid stability
- greater diversity of affordable energy options
- efficient heating and cooling
- key technology and workforce pathways from oil & gas to renewable geothermal development
- lower carbon emissions to help transition Americans to a carbon pollution-free power sector by 2035 and a net-zero emission economy by 2050 
Updated June 2022 by Diane M. Long