Merchant hydrogen producers own the approximately 1,600 miles of hydrogen pipelines currently operating in the U.S. These pipelines are located where large hydrogen users, such as petroleum refineries and chemical plants, are concentrated – in Illinois, California, and the Gulf Coast.[1]

Vehicle manufacturers are only offering FCEVs to consumers who live in regions where hydrogen stations exist.[2] For hydrogen transportation applications, as of mid-2021, 47 retail hydrogen stations were open to the public in California, as well as one in Hawaii, and 55 more were in various stages of construction or planning.[3] Find existing hydrogen fueling stations in the United States and Canada here.

California is leading the U.S. in funding and building hydrogen fueling stations for FCEVs. In 2013 the California Energy Commission (CEC) authorized funding through 2024 to enable at least 100 operational stations. California has now doubled the State’s construction goal for hydrogen stations, establishing new targets of 200 stations by 2025[4] and 5 million total zero-emission vehicles on California roads by 2030.[5] For information about the progress towards this goal, see the California Air Resources Board’s Hydrogen Transportation Initiatives website and the CEC and ARB Joint Agency Reports website.

In the Northeastern states, 12 - 25 retail stations are planned, to be supplied by tube trailers, and filled at two 21,000 kg/day liquid terminals located in NYC and Boston.[6]

In the U.S., there are also stations supporting public and private fleets (buses, medium- and heavy-duty fleets), and material handling equipment (i.e. forklifts). Unlike consumer stations, fleet fueling stations can be centrally located to meet private or public fleet needs.[7] In the Midwest, this has been the initial focus. Instead of focusing on the light-duty sector first, the focus is on building commercial fleet and transit infrastructure, with stations dedicated for fleet usage first. Once those stations are in operation, they could provide public access as well for light-duty customers.[8]

In the U.S. there are also hydrogen fueling stations primarily used for demonstration and/or research.[9]

The U.S. Department of Energy’s January 2018 State of the States report provides a comprehensive analysis of state activities supporting fuel cell and hydrogen technology, including recent installations, policies, funding, and deployments around the country.

In the Roadmaps section of this portal, links are provided to the California and Midwest Hydrogen Roadmaps.

Updated June 2022 by Erin Bennett